A journey through the myths and history in the Phlegrean Fields
The History, the eruptions, the bradyseism and the incredibles greek-roman ruins: which witness the passage of ancient peoples that has now disappeared.
What are the Phlegrean Fields.
The Phlegraean Fields from Greek: “phlego”, they meant burning lands, because there are many hydrothermal phenomena, such as fumaroles and hot spring, because it's a volcanic area.
These gorgeous places are almost unknown to most Italians and the whole world.
Here you will see lovely sea landscapes with breathtaking views that are always enchanting the people that visit. This area includes the entire Gulf of Pozzuoli, the northwest area of the city of Naples, including part of its gulf.
The particularity of the Phlegraean Fields is an incredible paradisiacal land along with the unsettling charm of the volcanoes.
The eruptions of Phlegrean Fields
In these lands there have been 3 powerful eruptions: the first 39000 years ago, the second 15000 years ago and the last one, even it has not been very powerful, it was very significant: in 1538 there was an eruption that brought the rise of the New Mountain, in Italian il Monte nuovo.
What is the The Bradyseism
Then there were many other minor seismic phenomena, among which The Bradyseism, gradual uplift or descent of part of the Earth's surface:
- Lucrino lake in the ninth century it did not exist. It was completely submerged by the sea.
- The Julius port (Port of ancient Rome, first century A.C.). Now it’s completely submerged. In the port of Baia it's possible to visit these submerged remains on a glass bottom boat or by diving with experienced divers.
There are many springs of thermal waters, but in the past there were many more. Most important are: in Agnano (Naples), in Lucrino and Baia (in Pozzuoli) and on the Ischia island.
More and more tourists are fascinated by the beauty that nature offers in these fantastic lands. But there are more and more those who discover the remains of ancient civilizations: archaeological sites, castles, temples, amphitheaters etc.. A history that began almost 3000 years ago.
Flavian Amphitheater (it is the third largest Amphitheater in Italy). It was built at the end of the first century, at the time of the Roman Emperor Vespasian of the Flavia Dynasty.
Archaeological excavations of Cumae. where you can find the cave of Sybil (the priestess of the oracle of Apollo, Greek god of the sun). The city was an ancient Greek colony of 700 A.C.).
Macellum of Pozzuoli, The ancient market, also called "Temple of Serapis", in Italian "Tempio di Serapide" because a statue of the Egyptian god Serapis was found there. There are visible signs on the columns. They have been left by the lithodomes (sea molluscs that corroding the rocks and then they settle inside). Because of these furrows it was possible to discover the ground level during Bradisism.
Temple of Augustus now it's the cathedral of the city of Pozzuoli.
In the middle of the Fusaro lake there is the pretty Vanvitellian cottage (in italian: Casina Vanvitelliana), built and used as a hunting lodge by King Ferdinand IV of Bourbon in the 18th century AD.
The Neapolitan crypt (in Italian: Cripta Napoletana, also called cave of Virgil or cave of Posillipo): in Roman times the rock of tuff was excavated. It created a tunnel to connect the Phlegraean Fields with Naples.
The Mirabilis pool, a huge water cistern of Roman era. It was built around 10 A.J.C. It is capable of containing 12600 Cubic meters of water (3328567,9 U.S. Gallons / 2771612,5 IMP Gallons).
Cento Camerelle a Bacoli, antica cisterna di un'importante villa di epoca imperiale. The water coming from the sources of the Serino in Irpina (on the Terminio mountain). The water was transported by the Augusteo aqueduct (built in Roman times).
Le Cento Camerelle (in Bacoli) it's a water cistern of the Roman era, also called the prisons of Nero the Roman emperor.
Large monumental necropolis (including the necropolis in Via Celle).
Archaeological park of Baia That's the destination of the ancient Romans for hot springs. Inside the Park there is the temple of Mercury. Outside there other two temples: Venus and Diana.
Underwater archaeological park in Baia: the submerged Roman town.
If you want to visit the underwater parc of Baia: Villas, columns, archaeological finds, marine fauna and underwater volcanic phenomenas you have two way:
In these waters it has been found the Nymphaeum of Punta Epitaffio, now it is exposed in Archaeological museum of Phlegraean Fields (inside the aragonese Baia Castle), a fortress built by the aragoneses in 1495 (just before the French invasion).
On the Averno lake there is the Temple of Apollo (a great thermal room of the Roman age), but it was believed to be the cave of the Sybil of Cumans (priestess of the oracle of the god Apollo).
A legend says that this cave was the mouth of hell described by Virgil in the Aeneid.
Numerous fumaroles and gases are visible from the Solfatara Volcano. Unfortunately, no longer open.